The Volkswagen group gained market share, capturing 23.2 percent of sales with a mild 1-percent drop. Shares of its luxury brands were mixed, with Audi up by 1.7 percent and Porsche plummeting 19 percent.
French carmaker Renault was alone among mass carmakers in increasing sales, up 2 percent, on the strength of its lower-priced Dacia marquee. German luxury carmaker Daimler's sales slipped by 13.3 percent. BMW sales were down by 2.2 percent.