The result moved Athletic within a point of leader Atlético Madrid, which visits Real Sociedad on Saturday. A win would have moved the Basque Country club to the top entering the weekend. Mallorca, back in the first division after a six-year absence, was 14th in the 20-team standings with four points from four matches.
Mallorca still had time to find the net after Aduriz's miss for Athletic from the spot, but forward Alex Alegria was called offside. Athletic's penalty was awarded for hand ball after video review. Mallorca's penalty came after a foul against Japanese teenager Takefusa Kubo, who is on loan from Real Madrid.
Both teams hit the woodwork in the game at Mallorca's Son Moix Stadium. Defending champion Barcelona hosts Valencia on Saturday, while Real Madrid hosts Levante.
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