Sharapova, a five-time Grand Slam champion, hasn't played since pulling out of a tournament in St. Petersburg, Russia, in late January after winning her first-round match. She won three matches at the Australian Open and is ranked 28th.
Sharapova said in February that she had undergone a "small procedure" on her right shoulder that would need a few weeks to heal. She added that she has struggled since midway through last year with shoulder pain caused by a fraying tendon and small labrum tear.
Missing Rome puts Sharapova in doubt for the French Open, which begins at the end of the month. Sharapova won the Italian Open in 2011, 2012 and 2015.
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